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Basic properties

Weight (ISO 536, TAPPI T410):

WhatThe basis weight of paper, board or corrugated board in g/m²​
Why

A constant weight contributes to consistency. This value is of importance when choices for means of distribution have to be made (mail or otherwise) and is also needed to interpret other physical properties that are specified with regard to weight.

HowOn an analytical balance weighing of 10 samples of 100 cm².

Optional: weighing at least 10 samples of known area (e.g. 210×297 mm=A4) and calculating the weight in g/m².

Calculations
Where:
m = mass of 1 sample in g
A = area of 1 sample in m²Report the average of at least 10 significant values and the standard deviation.

Bulk (ISO 534, TAPPI T411):

WhatThis is the ratio between thickness and weight, the specific volume, expressed in cm³/g. A higher value indicates a higher bulk.
Why

Bulk of paper is e.g. used to determine the total thickness of a book or magazine.

HowMeasuring both weight and thickness as described, calculating the bulk.
Calculations
Report the average of at least 10 significant values and the standard deviation.

Mass Density (ISO 534, TAPPI T411):

WhatTo show how much mass is present in a specific volume, expressed in g/cm³.
WhyDensity has impact on opacity and strength properties.
HowMeasuring both weight and thickness as described, calculating the mass.
Calculations
Report the average of at least 10 significant values and the standard deviation.

Thickness (ISO 534, TAPPI T411, ISO 3034):

WhatThe distance between front and back of a single sheet of paper, board or corrugated board, expressed in µm (1 micrometre = 0.001 mm)
Why

Variation in thickness causes variation in the printed image and may be of influence on certain finishing processes.

How20 Measurements in micrometres with a conforming thickness gauge.

Another way of measuring thickness is to measure the total thickness of a stack of 10 sheets on 5 specified places. Average results divided by 10. This is often referred to as bulking thickness as opposed to single sheet thickness. (Official ISO standard is withdrawn.)

Calculations
Where:
ts  = thickness of a single sheet
tb = thickness of a stack of 10 sheets (bulking thickness)Report the average of at least 10 significant values and the standard deviation.
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